The first snowfall
is on its way. For some golf course superintendents (GCS), it is the last – and
best – chance to avoid perennial weeds lying in wait on your course, ready to
wreak havoc come spring.
application of Defendor®
specialty herbicide in the fall can
prevent spring weeds and eliminate costly callbacks, allowing you to spend more
time doing what matters: maintaining your course and growing your business.
maintaining perennial weeds, you incur a number of time- and budget-oriented
Increased material costs
from application re-treatments
Less time to
conduct required spring course maintenance
likelihood of weed complaints from course guests
Greater risk to
your reputation among course guests and owners
Defendor provides labor-saving benefits by allowing you to reallocate resources the way you need, offering you more flexibility when managing your course.
A fall application
of Defendor is especially beneficial because it controls winter-, fall- and
many of the spring-related broadleaf weeds. GCSs can start making fall and
winter herbicide applications as early as mid-September to ensure greater
control. Applicators in the North can use Defendor into November, and GCSs in
the South can apply through January, depending on weather conditions. To
achieve complete control, a second application may be needed in the spring.
Under a heavy blanket of snow, it’s easy to believe that nothing is happening on your course. But beware: hiding under that white blanket could be patchy turf infected with — you guessed it — dangerous snow mold.
Fortunately, by taking the right steps, you can
prevent and even counteract snow mold as well as enable a quick turf recovery
Know your mold
When it comes to turf disease, your course is
susceptible to a variety of conditions. While all snow mold is found beneath
patches of snow or in areas with prolonged exposure to cool, wet weather with
temperatures below 40 degrees Fahrenheit, there are key differences between the
types of snow mold that might be growing on your course.
Here are some of the different types of snow mold,
as well as tips to identify them:
snow mold. Often appearing after snow has melted as a
white-gray halo of fluffy fungal growth, gray snow mold develops in cool
conditions on wet and matted turfgrass. Unlike its counterpart, pink snow mold,
gray snow mold leaves sclerotia, or small tan-brown pea-like structures on
snow mold. While pink snow mold can appear similar to gray
snow mold, under wet turf conditions, a pink hue can be visible in the
symptomatic area, with a pink ring surrounding the patch of mold. Unlike gray
snow mold, pink snow mold does not leave sclerotia on afflicted turf.
Tips to recover from snow mold
There are a variety of ways to manage and recover
from both pink and gray snow mold. Consider the following methods for proper
snow mold management:
Snow removal. Despite its innocuous
appearance, snow traps heat and moisture in turfgrass, creating conducive
conditions for mold to grow. Proper removal of compacted snow will keep
turfgrass healthy and ensure your course is less susceptible to mold.
Raking. When it comes to turf management, raking your
course is instrumental in avoiding snow mold. How? Raking promotes proper air
circulation, preventing the moist, damp, stagnant conditions required for mold
Removing dead material.
Removal of dead material such as dead foliage and turfgrass clippings will help
you gain additional control over snow mold.
Mowing and preventative fungicide application. In
fall, continuing to mow well into turf dormancy while applying one to two
preventative fungicide applications can help “put the course to rest” before
snow comes in winter.
Fungicide applications to help prevent snow mold
To protect against snow mold, the best defense is a good offense. That’s why both preventative and curative fungicide applications should be used when treating potential snow mold on turfgrass.
By taking a combined approach of preventative turf
maintenance and proper fungicide applications, you’ll no longer have to worry
about that deceptive blanket of snow — or what’s hiding just beneath its
Spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata) is a common warm-season annual weed that can cause problems on any nursery operation. Commonly found in container plants and growing on the ground around containers, spotted spurge can rob your plants of vital nutrients needed to foster a beautiful, thriving appearance. It can establish thousands of seeds per plant and therefore spread very quickly throughout a nursery.
spurge is easily identified by its red- or purple-tinged stems, which host
opposite leaves and emit milky sap when broken. The oblong leaves are smooth or
sparsely hairy and are reddish-green to dark green in color — often with a
maroon or purple spot at the center.
prevent spotted spurge, apply a broadleaf preemergence herbicide containing
isoxaben or dithiopyr, such as Gallery® specialty
in the spring, when air temperatures are consistently warm. You may also tank-mix
Gallery, making applications to the container plants and the ground as a strong
defense against spurge. This mix also can be used in field-grown areas as well.
For unsurpassed plant safety and unparalleled ease of application, Snapshot® specialty
herbicide is an
excellent granular preemergence choice.
Hand-pulling weeds when they’re small will minimize seed deposits. Combined with a reliable herbicide program that includes Gallery, Dimension or Snapshot with good sanitation practices can minimize the spread of spotted spurge — an extremely problematic weed — saving your nursery operation both time and labor.
™ ® Trademarks of Corteva Agriscience and its affiliated companies. State restrictions on the sale and use of Dimension and Snapshot apply. Consult the label before purchase or use for full details. Always read and follow label directions.
find something that works, the instinct is to stick with it. However, when it
comes to pesticides, overuse of favorite products leads to the development of
is a change in the susceptibility of some insects or mites in an arthropod pest
population to an insecticide. This change allows them to survive insecticide applications
that previously controlled them and subsequently pass the resistance traits to
the next generation.
reduce the risk of resistance, it is important to rotate pesticides – not by
brand or trade name, but by active ingredients and modes of action.
Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) groups pesticides by mode of
action (MOA). Different chemical classes can have similar modes of action and
are listed as subgroups. Rotating insecticides based on MOA reduces the chance
of resistance developing. The modes of action of insecticides and miticides are
numbered, color coded and available on the IRAC
addition, the IRAC group number or numbers are listed on the product label of
every insecticide. The chart below details commonly used insecticides, their
active ingredients and their respective IRAC groups.
minimize the risk of pest populations developing resistance, follow these
crops to determine if population levels meet economic thresholds and target the
most susceptible life stage(s) of an insect. Continue to monitor after
applications to assess efficacy and monitor for signs of resistance.
and use pesticides judiciously. Properly
identify insects and choose an insecticide that is active on the target pest.
according to label instructions. Make
sure equipment is properly calibrated and apply at labeled rate. Follow label
directions regarding treatment intervals and maximum applications per year.
repeated applications are necessary, rotate insecticides between IRAC groups.
Do not make more than two consecutive applications of insecticides with the
same mode of action before rotating.
Track which insect species were present, and when and where applications were
made. Record the rate, timing and number of applications made. Be sure to track
the level of control achieved. Use these records to aid in planning for future
adhering to insecticide resistance management practices can help reduce the
chance of resistance developing in the first place.
™ ® Conserve, Entrust, Intrepid and XXpire aretrademarks of Corteva Agriscience and its affiliated companies. XXpire is not registered for sale or use in all states. Contact your state pesticide regulatory agency to determine if a product is registered for sale or use in your state. State restrictions on the sale and use of Entrust and Intrepid apply. Consult the label before purchase or use for full details. Always read and follow label directions.
control is a challenge for nursery growers. Overuse of older chemistries has
led to resistance issues and fewer insecticide options. Because plant health is
vital, growers need insecticides that are tough on a broad range of insects but
gentle on plants.
XXpire® insecticide combines two proprietary active
ingredients – sulfoxaflor and spinetoram — with two different modes of action,
reducing the likelihood of resistance and broadening the spectrum of control.
has a unique mode of action (IRAC Group 4C) and is not a neonicotinoid
chemistry. It provides excellent knockdown and residual control of sap-feeding
insects, including thrips, aphids, whiteflies and mealybugs, with minimal
activity against beneficial insects.
is a spinosyn insecticide (IRAC Group 5). Spinosyns are derived from the
fermentation of a naturally occurring bacterium. Spinetoram controls thrips and
most lepidopteran insect pests and suppresses spider mites.
these combined chemistries, XXpire controls more than 39 insects, including 7
of the top 10 chewing and sap-feeding pests.
safety is a critical issue for nursery professionals. In testing on more than
300 plants, including delicate and flowering ornamentals, XXpire showed no
signs of phytotoxicity. It leaves no visible residue on leaves or flowers.
XXpire was applied at four times the highest labeled application rate in
university trials, and no injury was observed.
to beneficials and pollinators
field studies, the active ingredients in XXpire have shown no significant
impact on certain parasitic insects, including spiders, predatory mites,
ladybird beetles, minute pirate bugs and lacewings. The active ingredients in
XXpire degrade rapidly and exhibit low toxicity to nontarget organisms. In
addition, the use of XXpire is not expected to cause outbreaks or flaring of
greenhouse applications, there are no concerns or restrictions relative to bees
and native pollinators. For outdoor nursery or landscape applications, the risk
to pollinators is greatly reduced after three hours of drying time or when
applications are made while foraging bee activity is low (e.g., two hours prior
to sunset or when temperatures are below 50 degrees F).
controls a wide range of insect pests and is an excellent component of a
resistance management program. Because the active ingredients each belong to a
unique IRAC group of insecticides, XXpire can be rotated with other commonly
used insecticides in different IRAC groups. As with all insecticides, XXpire
must be managed to reduce the potential for the development of insect
resistance. Resistance management practices include following recommended
treatment intervals and rates, rotation of insecticides among different IRAC
groups, and scouting and monitoring for pests and damage.
XXpire when pests appear. XXpire starts working as soon as it’s applied. Many
insects, such as aphids and lepidopterans, stop feeding right away and start to
die. Other pests die within hours. XXpire provides residual activity up to four
weeks against certain pests. Make no more than two consecutive applications and
then rotate to a new class of chemistry outside of Group 4 or Group 5.
™ ® Trademarks of Corteva Agriscience and its affiliated companies. XXpire is not registered for sale or use in all states. Contact your state pesticide regulatory agency to determine if a product is registered for sale or use in your state. Always read and follow label directions.
Hairy bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) is a winter annual with a low-growing basal rosette and stems 3 to 9 inches long. Part of the mustard family, bittercress is prolific and spreads quickly. When plants are disturbed, seeds are expelled and can spread to pots and be transported on the soles of workers’ shoes. To avoid infestation, control bittercress early in the spring before the flowers turn to seed. We recommend Snapshot® specialty herbicidefor preemergence control, clearing the way for an ornamental environment that fosters beautiful, thriving plants.
What to look for: Rosette of two to four pairs of
round leaflets arranged alternately along the rachis.
Life cycle: Winter annual that germinates in
the fall, overwinters, and in early spring sends up stalks of white flowers
followed by slender seed pods. After setting seed, the life cycle is complete.
Hairy bittercress can have multiple generations per year.
Leaves: Leaf margins are shallowly toothed.
Leaves at the base of the plant are larger than those at the top.
Flowers: Small white flowers with four
petals in clusters at the end of the stems.
Commonly found: Thrives in wet, disturbed areas,
such as containers, greenhouse floors, gravel areas and landscape beds.
Treatment recommendations: Hairy bittercress has a deep taproot, which makes pulling them by hand ineffective. Early control is essential to prevent an infestation. Apply a preemergence herbicide, such as Snapshot® specialty herbicide, in late summer at the time of germination, or immediately after cultivation for control in containers, fields and landscape beds. Snapshot will then help foster the development of beautiful, thriving plants.
™ ® Trademarks of Corteva Agriscience and its affiliated companies. State restrictions on the sale and use of Snapshot apply. Consult the label before purchase or use for full details. Always read and follow label directions.
Chickweed (Stellaria media) is
a winter annual. It is mostly prostrate, but often forms small mounds by
growing on top of itself. It is commonly found in field nurseries, ornamental
beds and lawns. To control common chickweed, we recommend preemergence control
with Dimension® specialty
herbicide — the foundation of success for any rigorous
and impactful Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program.
What to look for: Low-spreading prostrate winter
annual with light-green leaves. Foliage is opposite along the stem with hairy
Life cycle: Winter annual reproducing by seed
or by stem rooting at inter-nodes. One plant can produce many generations of
seedlings during a season.
Leaves: Light green, mostly hairless,
opposite, broadly ovate or heart-shaped with pointed tips.
Flowers: White half-inch flowers are formed
in clusters at the terminal end of the stem. Each flower has five petals, so deeply
lobed that it appears to have 10. Flowers in the spring.
Roots: Shallow and fibrous
Commonly found: Thrives in fertile, moist, disturbed
areas, such as field nurseries, landscape beds and lawns.
Look-alikes: Mouse-ear chickweed (a perennial
Treatment recommendations: Common chickweed is best controlled with
a preemergence herbicide, such as Dimension® specialty herbicide,
the foundation of success for any IPM program, in late summer or early fall, at
the time of germination or immediately after cultivation.
™ ® Trademarks of Corteva Agriscience and its affiliated companies. State restrictions on the sale and use of Dimension apply. Consult the label before purchase or use for full details. Always read and follow label directions.
nursery containers start from the ground up with the focus on prevention. The
key to a successful weed management program is a strict sanitation regimen that
combines cultural practices and effective use of herbicides. To prevent weed
seeds from germinating and contaminating containers, follow these best
management practices for clean container production:
Keep nonproduction areas clean
Maintaining weed-free noncropland areas is one of the most effective sanitary practices. To drastically reduce weed seed from infesting production areas, control weeds growing along the edges of fields, roadways and drainage ditches.
Control weeds under containers
Weeds between containers are a source of weed seed. And windborne weed seeds, such as bittercress and oxalis, can project seed several feet. Start with a clean foundation.
Between crops, when production beds are empty, eliminate any existing weeds. Depending on weed pressure, this can be done culturally or with a postemergence herbicide.
Remove any debris from plants and spilled bark or soil where weeds can establish.
Install fresh gravel or new weed fabric if there are holes and gaps in coverage.
Apply preemergence herbicides directly on the gravel to prevent any weed seeds from germinating. Preemergence herbicides, such as Dimension®and Gallery®specialty herbicides, form a chemical barrier over the surface.
To ensure uniform coverage with no gaps, always apply the herbicide at the rate specified on the label. Minimize equipment and foot traffic to the area to avoid disrupting the chemical barrier.
Start with clean liners
Weed seeds are often small and cling to the side of containers. Use clean pots or containers to reduce the number of weeds in your nursery. Wash propagated pots and liners inside and out with pressurized water to remove seeds. Starting with weed-free liners is critical. A single escape of one bittercress plant can produce up to 5,000 seeds!
Apply preemergence herbicide
The final step to prevent weeds from contaminating containers is to apply a preemergence herbicide, such as Snapshot® specialty herbicide, to the surface of weed-free container media. Once activated with 0.5 inch of irrigation, a chemical barrier at the surface prevents any weed seeds from germinating and competing for vital nutrients. With weeds out of the way, Snapshot specialty herbicide will help foster the development of beautiful, thriving plants.
Weed control in container nursery production starts with prevention. Learn more about effective weed control at www.corteva.us/turf.™
® Trademarks of Corteva Agriscience and its affiliated companies. State restrictions on the sale and use of Dimension and Snapshot specialty herbicide products apply. Consult the label before purchase or use for full details. Always read and follow label directions
The massive cleanup after a destructive tropical storm or hurricane is overwhelming. Once the flood waters recede, the first step is removing branches, leaves, trees and all the other debris littering the golf course. When that is complete, the damaged turf underneath can be evaluated. The tees, fairways and greens may be covered in sand and silt. Turf that has been submerged under floodwater suffers loss of oxygen and nitrogen and may be yellow or brown.
One of the long-term agronomic effects of flooding and storm surge is weed control. The floodwaters carry and spread weed seeds and dilute or leach previously applied preemergence herbicides. Here are some tips to boost turf recovery and minimize weed outbreaks:
silt and sediment. Depending
on how deep it is, the sediment deposit may need to be physically removed or
blasted away with high-pressure water. It can be labor-intensive, but even a
thin layer can cause long-term drainage issues.
Because the root systems have been damaged, a light nitrogen fertilizer
application will give the turf a boost and help improve nutrient and water
aerification of all impacted areas will provide needed oxygen to roots to
promote healthy growth and encourage drainage.
turf. Seed or
sod bare areas as soon as possible to establish turf and prevent weeds from
taking over voids. For best results, use proper cultural practices and
mechanical equipment to maximize seed-to-soil contact.
initial efforts focused on turf recovery and establishing new turfgrass,
increased weed pressure is inevitable. Wait until damaged turf has
significantly recovered and newly seeded areas are well established before
making herbicide applications. Always read and follow label directions. If
planning to overseed, it may be best to skip a year or delay as long as
possible to aid in Poa annua control. In coming seasons, plan to make
split preemergence and multiple postemergence herbicide applications to get
weeds under control.
turf recovery from a devastating hurricane takes time and requires patience.
Reopening the course too soon before flooded areas are dry and fully recovered
can cause more damage.
The damage caused by tropical storms and hurricanes can be devastating, but if there is a silver lining, these storms develop slowly and provide crucial advance warning.To maximize the time before the storm hits, here are the top five things you can do to prepare:
Develop an action plan. With sustained winds and torrential rain, protecting the safety of people and property is critical. Begin your plan with a safety checklist. Include specific actions that need to be taken at different times — 72, 48 and 24 hours — leading up to the storm. Be sure to include:
Identification of potentially hazardous materials — fuel and combustible storage
Location of emergency shutoff switches, including water, gas and electric
Proper storage of pesticides and hazardous equipment
Inventory and current images of course, equipment and maintenance facility
Evaluation of insurance policy to determine coverage and ensure premium is paid
Backup of computers and safe storage of valuable business papers and records
Identification of all potential flying debris (trash cans, bunker rakes, signage, tee marks, pins) for removal and safe storage
Pumping down pond levels and removal of any materials from low-lying areas
Assigning individuals responsible for actions.
Verify communication. Inform all employees of the plan. Be sure to update all current contact information. Determine how you’re going to communicate and use multiple vehicles in case one line of communication is disabled. Test the system. Include response mechanism for staff to mark themselves accounted for and safe.
Outline evacuation plan. Designate individuals who will stay on-site during the storm. Release all nonessential staff after storm preparations are complete and safely before storm makes landfall. Follow any mandatory evacuation orders from local authorities.
Stage equipment for cleanup. Confirm chainsaws and generators are operational and stored off-site and fuel is available. Fill water coolers with fresh water. Have recovery materials staged and ready for return. Make arrangements with contractors or vendors before the storm to ensure rapid response for recovery.
Practice your plan. Emergency preparedness training should be conducted for all employees on a regular basis to familiarize everyone with the plan. Prior to hurricane season, practice what to do in a real-life storm. Run-throughs can help identify any gaps or areas that need improvement.
detailed action plan can help keep people safe and aid in the quick recovery
for your course.